The BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure Database

DOI for
The BIDMC Congestive Heart Failure Database:


This database is a subset of the data described in

Baim DS, Colucci WS, Monrad ES, Smith HS, Wright RF, Lanoue A, Gauthier DF, Ransil BJ, Grossman W, Braunwald E. Survival of patients with severe congestive heart failure treated with oral milrinone. J American College of Cardiology 1986 Mar; 7(3):661-670. [View Abstract]

Please cite this publication when referencing this material, and also include the standard citation for PhysioNet:

Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Glass L, Hausdorff JM, Ivanov PCh, Mark RG, Mietus JE, Moody GB, Peng C-K, Stanley HE. PhysioBank, PhysioToolkit, and PhysioNet: Components of a New Research Resource for Complex Physiologic Signals. Circulation 101(23):e215-e220 [Circulation Electronic Pages;]; 2000 (June 13).
First 5 seconds of record chfdb/chf02

This database includes long-term ECG recordings from 15 subjects (11 men, aged 22 to 71, and 4 women, aged 54 to 63) with severe congestive heart failure (NYHA class 3–4). This group of subjects was part of a larger study group receiving conventional medical therapy prior to receiving the oral inotropic agent, milrinone. Further details about the larger study group are available in the first reference cited above. A number of additional studies have made use of these recordings; see the additional references below.

The individual recordings are each about 20 hours in duration, and contain two ECG signals each sampled at 250 samples per second with 12-bit resolution over a range of ±10 millivolts. The original analog recordings were made at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital (now the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) using ambulatory ECG recorders with a typical recording bandwidth of approximately 0.1 Hz to 40 Hz. Annotation files (with the suffix .ecg) were prepared using an automated detector and have not been corrected manually.

Additional References

  1. Moody GB, Mark RG, Bump MA, Weinstein JS, Berman AD, Mietus JE, Goldberger AL. Clinical validation of the ECG-derived respiration (EDR) technique. Computers in Cardiology 1986; 13:507–510.
  2. Goldberger AL, Rigney DR, Mietus J, Antman EM, Greenwald S. Nonlinear dynamics in sudden cardiac death syndrome: heartrate oscillations and bifurcations. Experientia 1988 Dec 1; 44(11–12):983–987. [View Abstract]
  3. Peng C-K, Mietus J, Hausdorff JM, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Long-range anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat. Physical Review Letters 1993 Mar 1; 70(9):1343–1346.
  4. Peng C-K, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Quantification of scaling exponents and crossover phenomena in nonstationary heartbeat time series. Chaos 1995; 5(1):82–87.
  5. Poon C-S, Merrill CK. Decrease of cardiac chaos in congestive heart failure. Nature 1997 Oct 2; 389(6650):492–495. [View Abstract]
  6. Ivanov PCh, Bunde A, Amaral LAN, Havlin S, Fritsch-Yelle J, Baevsky RM, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Sleep-wake differences in scaling behavior of the human heartbeat: analysis of terrestrial and long-term space flight data. Europhysics Letters 1999; 48(5):594–600.
  7. Ivanov PCh, Amaral LAN, Goldberger AL, Havlin S, Rosenblum MG, Struzik ZR, Stanley HE. Multifractality in human heart rate dynamics. Nature 1999 Jun 3; 399(6735):461–465. [View Abstract]
  8. Teich MC, Lowen SB, Jost BM, Vibe-Rhymer K, Heneghan C. Heart rate variability: measures and models. In Nonlinear Biomedical Signal Processing, Vol. II, Dynamic Analysis and Modeling (Ed. M Akay), ch. 6, pp 159–213. New York: IEEE Press, 2001. [The 15 recordings identified in Appendix A of this reference by names of the form annnn are those belonging to this database.]
  9. Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Henry I, Goldsmith RL, Goldberger AL. The pNNx files: re-examining a widely used heart rate variability measure. Heart 2002; 88:378–380.
  10. [View Abstract]