This database is a subset of the data described in
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This database includes long-term ECG recordings from 15 subjects (11 men, aged 22 to 71, and 4 women, aged 54 to 63) with severe congestive heart failure (NYHA class 3–4). This group of subjects was part of a larger study group receiving conventional medical therapy prior to receiving the oral inotropic agent, milrinone. Further details about the larger study group are available in the first reference cited above. A number of additional studies have made use of these recordings; see the additional references below.
The individual recordings are each about 20 hours in duration, and contain two ECG signals each sampled at 250 samples per second with 12-bit resolution over a range of ±10 millivolts. The original analog recordings were made at Boston's Beth Israel Hospital (now the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center) using ambulatory ECG recorders with a typical recording bandwidth of approximately 0.1 Hz to 40 Hz. Annotation files (with the suffix .ecg) were prepared using an automated detector and have not been corrected manually.
- Moody GB, Mark RG, Bump MA, Weinstein JS, Berman AD, Mietus JE, Goldberger AL. Clinical validation of the ECG-derived respiration (EDR) technique. Computers in Cardiology 1986; 13:507–510.
- Goldberger AL, Rigney DR, Mietus J, Antman EM, Greenwald S. Nonlinear dynamics in sudden cardiac death syndrome: heartrate oscillations and bifurcations. Experientia 1988 Dec 1; 44(11–12):983–987. [View Abstract]
- Peng C-K, Mietus J, Hausdorff JM, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Long-range anticorrelations and non-Gaussian behavior of the heartbeat. Physical Review Letters 1993 Mar 1; 70(9):1343–1346.
- Peng C-K, Havlin S, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Quantification of scaling exponents and crossover phenomena in nonstationary heartbeat time series. Chaos 1995; 5(1):82–87.
- Poon C-S, Merrill CK. Decrease of cardiac chaos in congestive heart failure. Nature 1997 Oct 2; 389(6650):492–495. [View Abstract]
- Ivanov PCh, Bunde A, Amaral LAN, Havlin S, Fritsch-Yelle J, Baevsky RM, Stanley HE, Goldberger AL. Sleep-wake differences in scaling behavior of the human heartbeat: analysis of terrestrial and long-term space flight data. Europhysics Letters 1999; 48(5):594–600.
- Ivanov PCh, Amaral LAN, Goldberger AL, Havlin S, Rosenblum MG, Struzik ZR, Stanley HE. Multifractality in human heart rate dynamics. Nature 1999 Jun 3; 399(6735):461–465. [View Abstract]
- Teich MC, Lowen SB, Jost BM, Vibe-Rhymer K, Heneghan C. Heart rate variability: measures and models. In Nonlinear Biomedical Signal Processing, Vol. II, Dynamic Analysis and Modeling (Ed. M Akay), ch. 6, pp 159–213. New York: IEEE Press, 2001. [The 15 recordings identified in Appendix A of this reference by names of the form annnn are those belonging to this database.]
- Mietus JE, Peng C-K, Henry I, Goldsmith RL, Goldberger AL. The pNNx files: re-examining a widely used heart rate variability measure. Heart 2002; 88:378–380. [View Abstract]